Belfast IRA commandants from 1916 to 1969

Previously, I’d published a chronology of the Belfast IRA commandants from 1924 to 1969, including some revisions and a look at gaps in the list. As more files, mainly pension applications, have been released by the Military Archives in Dublin, it has been possible to put together a picture from the Easter Rising in 1916 through to 1969.

I’ve arranged this into a table following a rough chronology based on the main organisational unit. Since the scale varies from a Battalion to a Brigade to a Division, I’ve tried to retain the relevant information for battalion commandants after Belfast was structured into a Brigade, and I’ve added both brigade and battalion commandants when it was formed into the 3rd Northern Division.

The officer commanding each particular formation has mainly been taken from the 3rd Northern Division files, supplemented by individual pension files and witness statements. The most recent release of pension files includes a number of later applications made by republicans who had, up to that stage, refused to engage with what they saw as a Free State administration with no legitimacy. These make it possible to clarify a number of points.

Firstly, the command of the 3rd Northern Division itself is disputed after Joe McKelvey left for Dublin in March 1922. Pat Thornbury is recorded as Divisional O/C in the Belfast records reconstructed in the 1930s by the Pensions Committees (these records are indicated as representing the ‘Executive Forces’, meaning the IRA who opposed the 1922 treaty). According to his own pension applications and the accounts of other former Belfast IRA officers who had supported the treaty, Seamus Woods was the Divisional O/C. But Woods own applications show that he had already taken a commission as a Colonel in the Free State Army from 1st February 1922 and was mainly based in Dublin after that date. That the command structures in the Division were contested was publicly flagged as early as April 1922 (in an edition of An tOglach). Many of the Belfast IRA staff who supported the treaty remained in Dublin with the former GHQ staff of the IRA while holding what (to some extent) became nominal command roles in Belfast where actual command (such as existed) was exercised by IRA officers, loyal to the IRA Executive, who opposed the treaty.

The withdrawal of IRA volunteers from some Belfast units to the Curragh at the end of the summer in 1922, for a period of rest and training prior to a return to action in the north, saw the formation of a separate 3rd Northern Division Reserve, under the command of Roger McCorley and other Belfast IRA officers who had remained in Dublin with GHQ. This unit in the Curragh was disbanded in November 1922 and the Belfast IRA volunteers who wished to stay and join the Free State forces were formed into the 17th Battalion of the Free State Army. To those who had gone with the Free State side, they take this date in November as the time at which they formally relinquished their IRA commands, although even then there appear to be competing claims as to various roles (eg, both Sean O’Neill and Thomas Fitzpatrick appear to have recognised service as Belfast Brigade O/C to this date).

Obviously some of the lists of commandants in the 1916 to 1923 table below, just as for those from 1923 to 1969, are incomplete and some are surely incorrect. For instance, I have taken Thomas Fitzpatrick’s claim to recognition as the pro-Treaty Brigade O/C over Sean O’Neill’s as O’Neill’s own pension application isn’t actually clear on this point (perhaps he is simply being accorded the rank, for pay/pension purposes, rather than the formal command). There was also genuine confusion over the status of the various Battalions after March 1922, typified by the Brigade pension files that state that the 3rd and 4th Battalions were disbanded before 30th June 1922, but list Battalion staff’s (and include pension applications and witness statements) that run to November 1922. There is also a depth of animosity evident across the records, both in comments in individual witness statements (just to take one example – here is Seamus McKenna doing a hatchet job on Joe McKelvey, Jim McDermott and others) and the treatment of applications for pensions and awards from former opponents of the treaty (for instance check Patrick Thornbury’s two files here and here). This has also surely clouded some people’s memory.

After the table for 1916 to 1923, I’ve added the list of commandants from that date up to the split in the IRA in 1969 (you can find further information here on various individuals included the list).

As ever, any suggestions to fill in gaps, pointers for additional source material or corrections are most welcome.

Overall organisation and commandants of Belfast republican forces from 1916 to 1923.

1923-24 Jim O’Donnell?

1924-26 Hugh Corvin

1926-27 Dan Turley

1927-33 Davy Matthews

1933-34 Jack McNally

1934-36 Tony Lavery

1936-38 Sean McArdle

1938-40 Charlie McGlade

1940 Jimmy Steele

December 1940 to May 1941 Liam Rice

May to July 1941 Pearse Kelly

July 1941-42 Hugh Matthews

1942 John Graham

1942-43 Rory Maguire

February to May 1943 Jimmy Steele

May 1943 to Feb 1944 Rocky Burns

Feb 1944 to March 1944 Harry White

March 1944 to March 1945 Harry O’Rawe

March 1945 to October 1946 Johnny Murphy

October 1946 to ?? Seamus Twomey

?? to early 1949 Seamus McCollum 

1949-50 Frank McKearney

1950-56 Jimmy Steele

1956 Paddy Doyle

1956-57 Joe Cahill

1957-60 There is a gap in available information from mid-1957 until about 1960.

1960-63 Billy McKee

1963-69 Billy McMillen

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Hugh McAteer centenary

This year is the centenary of the birth of the former IRA Chief of Staff Hugh McAteer. To mark it, I’ve put together various pieces about McAteer, including a lengthy memoir he published in instalments in The Sunday Independent in 1951.

You can read it here: https://issuu.com/jjconeill/docs/hugh_mcateer_the_escape

 

Gerry Adams: An Unauthorised Life

I hadn’t really been doing book reviews on here, but I happened upon Malachi O’Doherty’s new biography of Gerry Adams (Gerry Adams: an Unauthorised Life) in Eason’s and so…

While I read a lot of text online, I still prefer the tactile experience of an actual book to a back-lit digital page. And although I order books online, I’d rather buy them in bookshops where I can, so when I have a nosey at what is in stock it is usually with an eye on whether I am going to buy it. By now, I’ve accumulated a reasonable enough library of books on Irish history and politics. I even have Sean O’Callaghan’s book on James Connolly (although I didn’t actually buy it, it was a present from my brother Michael – I suspect he doesn’t particularly like me).

So, before buying it, I’d had a flick through O’Doherty’s biography. O’Doherty is a veteran journalist who has published various books on the conflict in the north and whose opinion of republicans, in particular, is fairly well established. So I didn’t expect many surprises in the narrative arc of a biography of Adams.

What caught my eye a few pages into the book was a reference to Jimmy Steele leading the Campbell College raid of 1935. The passage acts as a bit of scene setting where the context of the IRA in late 1960s is contrasted with that of the 1930s (as a critical backdrop to the events of 1969 and increase in intensity of the conflict after August that year). This is illustrated with the example of a 1960s OTC cadet taking a bus along the Falls Road with a .303 Lee Enfield and a box of bullets to do some target practice in the countryside without fear of anyone (particularly the IRA) taking an unhealthy interest in making him part company with either the rifle or ammunition.

The first thing that struck me is that same thing probably happened in the 1930s, so the intended contrast is pretty much an illusion. There were no contemporary incidents or anything to suggest that an OTC cadet wouldn’t have done exactly the same thing in the 1930s without much fear of having his rifle and ammunition snatched from him. In many respects the IRA’s interest in Campbell College was a response to the widespread attacks by unionists on Catholics in various districts of Belfast in the summer of 1935 (rifles were repeatedly shown to be a much superior weapon at keeping crowds out of districts where they intended to inflict destruction). For someone who has repeatedly written on this sort of topic, O’Doherty seems to evidence an inordinately weak appreciation of the context here.

The second thing that then struck me was that Jimmy Steele didn’t lead the Campbell College raid. At the time he was Belfast Battalion Adjutant, while Tony Lavery was Battalion O/C. As Adjutant, Steele supplied a report on the raid to IRA GHQ which was captured in Crown Entry and the text quoted at length in the press. He and Lavery had went up to Campbell College in person to call off the raid when it was clear there were problems, but neither could be described as having led the raid itself. The source for Jimmy Steele leading the raid is Wikipedia, by the way. There is no citation given on Wikipedia for where that information came from but at some point in the future someone will probably try and be helpful and reference it back to O’Doherty’s book.

In the grand scheme of things, that’s pedantic, I know. And I’m sure the obvious retort would be that the corrections are irrelevant as the general sentiment and emotional framing of events in Belfast in 1969 is more important than the finer points of who did what. But therein lies the problem with O’Doherty’s book. So much of the output on the recent conflict in the north mistakes opinion and propaganda for truths or verifiable facts. History, and biographies, to be considered as such, should, at an absolute minimum, be about detail and accuracy. Ultimately, it isn’t the detail that is irrelevant, it is the opinion. And if the detail has to be corrected, what value is the opinion?

So marks out of five???

I didn’t even buy the book.

Map of IRA and Cumann na mBan suspects in Belfast

suspectsmap

Here is the RUC’s complete suspect list for the IRA and Cumann na mBan in Belfast in the late 1930s, including both the IRA A list and B list. The A list largely contains those who the RUC had previously arrested and held for various periods of time. Together, the combined lists contain five hundred and thirty-five names. Estimates of IRA membership in Belfast around the end of the 1930s suggest a figure of around eight hundred, with a further one hundred and twenty in Cumann na mBanThere is a good chance that some proportion of the names on the RUC list may be false names or addresses, although it is probably only a small number. Even then the RUC suspect list would still amount to half of the projected Belfast membership of the IRA and Cumann na mBan.

So, did the RUC have the IRA and Cumann na mBan completely infiltrated or under such close observation that it had details of over half the membership in Belfast? Without some sort of corresponding membership lists from the IRA or Cumann na mBan, it isn’t possible to make a direct comparison to test either the accuracy of the RUC or identify the actual proportion known to the RUC. However, it is possible to carry out some tests on the quality of RUC intelligence gathering and, to some extent, get an insight into its capacity to deliver counter-insurgency measures against the (very) low intensity campaigns operated by the IRA between 1922 and 1969.

There are known occasions on which detailed lists of IRA membership fell into the RUCs hands. This occurred when the RUC managed to intercept large bodies of IRA members at training camps, such as near Carnlough in 1932, at meetings in Pearse Hall in King Street, and elsewhere. The Belfast Battalion volunteers arrested at Gyles Quay in Louth in 1935 also had their details passed to the northern government. Where lists of these names were published in newspapers, around two thirds appear to have made it as far as the RUC suspects lists.

Ironically, the RUC even had one simple method of collecting the names of IRA volunteers. The playing staff of the McKelvey GAA club was solely made up of IRA volunteers – joining the IRA was even a prerequisite of membership, a fact that was known to the RUC. Reports on club games, including team sheets, were regularly printed in the likes of The Irish News. Yet, again, comparison of the names of players lining out for McKelveys in the likes of 1935-36 and the suspect lists shows that the RUC did not systematically include those who were effectively advertising their IRA membership.

Similarly, the list includes individuals who were no longer involved with the IRA. Davy Matthews, the former Belfast O/C was expelled from the IRA for signing a bond to get released from prison in 1934 and his name is not included. Yet George Nash, who had signed out at the same time and left the IRA, is still included on the RUC list in the late 1930s.

The likes of Murt Morgan, James Pimley and the Carleton brothers had left to join Republican Congress in 1934, if not beforehand, but still are included on the list. Liam Tumilson, who also left to join Republican Congress, is not on the list (he was to die fighting with the International Brigades in Spain in February 1937). But Jim Straney, who had went to Spain to join the International Brigades (and was killed at Gandesa in August 1938) is on the list, as is Peter Fanning, who had went to Spain with O’Duffy to fight on the fascist side.

The overall impression of RUC intelligence gathering appears to suggest it was fairly unsystematic and the lists were erratically maintained. The period during which the lists were considered valid isn’t completely apparent although it included annotations for individuals into the 1940s. Given that a primary tool deployed by the northern government was the detention/internment instruments of the Special Powers Act, this lack of attention to detail in intelligence gathering typically led to wide trawls in which large numbers were arrested, processed and detained for a period of time. The periodic mass arrests deployed by the northern government were intended to cast a net very widely rather than be targeted. Hence its initial round of internments in 1938 largely failed to capture the Belfast IRA’s current leadership. Instead, the RUC seemed to favour the use of informers, as was seen at Campbell College and Crown Entry. This was only effective in intercepting a small proportion of IRA operations.

The map below is interactive and includes all those on the list with an address (only one, a Christopher Lee, has no assigned address). Generally, individuals are located to streets rather than trying to place them where their actual house was (most of the terraces, and often streets, in which they lived now bear no resemblance to the streetscape of the 1930s and 1940s). If you click on any individual you can see their recorded address and, if they were considered by the RUC as ‘staff officers’ on the suspect list there is an ‘x’ beside ‘staff’ in the window with the details.

The full lists are also reproduced in text below the map.

Here is the list of Belfast IRA and Cumann na mBan suspects kept by the RUC in the late 1930s/1940s, organised by surname (alphabetically), and then by street (alphabetically). Except for some well known figures, names and addresses are written as recorded by the RUC.

Dominic Adams, 15 Abercorn Street

Patrick Adams, 15 Abercorn Street

R Anderson, 14 Roumania Street

Lawrence Bannon, 135 New Lodge Road

William Barret, 65 Whiterock Gardens

William Barrett, 51 Mary Street

Joe Boles, 80 Seaforde Street

Joseph Bowman, 40 Boundary Street

Charles P Boyle, 4 Lancaster Street

Leo Boyle, 133 New Lodge Road

Margaret Boyle, 54 Raglan Street

Patrick Boyle, 54 Raglan Street

John Bradley, 33 Arnon Street

William Bradley, 33 Arnon Street

J Brady, 1 Jude Street

Jack Brady, 71 Ladbrook Drive

Mary Brady, 45 Raglan Street

Phillip Brammold, 51 Whiterock Gardens

Mary Brennan, 47 Brookfield Street

Frank Broderick, 63 Durham Street

George Broderick, 250 Falls Road

John Brown, 17 Baker Street

Joseph Brown, 40 Upton Street

Sarah Brunton, 63 Vere Street

John Bunting, 37 Theodore Street

Liam Burke, 38 Locan Street

Brian Burns, 19 Linden Street

Dan Burns, 1 Highbury Gardens

Pete Burns, 19 Linden Street

Thomas Burns, 42 New Lodge Road

? Burrows, Lady Street

David Butler, 68 Raglan Street

Kathleen Cairns, 36 Clondara Street

Bella Campbell, 14 Upton Street

Francis Campbell, 38 Chemical Street

James Campbell, 2 Galway Street

Mary Campbell, 9 Rockmount Street

Peter Campbell, 1 Milan Street

Saida Campbell, 17 Malcolmson Street

Thomas Carabine, 135 Cavendish Street

Daniel Carberry, 9 Lower Clonard Street

Bernadetta Carbery, 61 Dunmore Street

Brendan Carey, 43 Dunmore Street

Patrick Carey, 8 Linden Street

Thomas Carey, 9 Carntall Street

Paul Carleton, 61 Whiterock Road

Peter Carleton, 10 Brittons Drive

Vincent Carley, 24 Lady Street

James Carlin, 15 Sevastopol Street

John Carmichael, 12 Mary Street

Charles Casey, 14 Brighton Street

Michael Casey, 14 Brighton Street

Martin Clarke, 20 Heathfield Street

Patrick Clarke, 98 Locan Street

Patrick Clarke, 4 Springfield Avenue

Sean Clarke, 4 Ross Place

Annie Collins, 16 St James Crescent

Joan Collins, 16 St James Crescent

Charles Connolly, 13 Joy Street

Patrick Connolly, 20 Leoville Street

William Connolly, 16 Panton Street

Francis Connor, 19 Jamaica Street

John Connor, 25 John Street

Mary Cooke, 8 Iveagh Parade

Gerry Cooper, 48 Nansen Street

Joseph Cooper, 48 Nansen Street

Arthur Corr, 76 Vere Street

Pearse Corry, 16 Hawthorne Street

Norah Costello, 65 Alexander Street West

James Crawford, 25 Getty Street

Nellie Crawford, 80 North Queen Street

Gerald Cullen, 8 Chief Street

Joe Cullen, 51 Rockmore Road

Gerald Curran, 205 Mountpottinger Road

Kevin Curran, 205 Mountpottinger Road

Patrick Daly, 3 Dunmore Street

Joseph Davey, 4 Concord Street

Gerard Deans, 124 Ardilea Street

Alice Deeds, 71 Brookfield Street

James Delaghan, 12 Upton Street

Peter Delaney, 13 Currie Street

Con Deveney, 903 Crumlin Road

Charles Devine, 9 Brae Fort Cottages

Felix Devlin, 13 Lowry Street

James Devlin, 26 Oranmore Street

John Devlin, 13 Lowry Street

John Devlin, 26 Springview Street

Sarah Devlin, 26 Springview Street

Teresa Devlin, 26 Springview Street

Teresa Devlin, 26 Springview Street

Joe Dickey, 20 Glenview Street

Patrick Dignan, 30 Anderson Street

Dan Doherty, 47 Sheriff Street

Michael Doherty, 67 Theodore Street

P Doherty, 17 Herbert Street

Terence Doherty, 37 Dunmore Street

Bridget Dolan, 22 Durham Street

Christina Dolan, 22 Durham Street

Margaret Dolan, 22 Durham Street

Robert Donald, 80 Sultan Street

Terence Donegan, 30 Milan Street

Bernard Donnelly, 702 Shore Road

John Donnelly, 10 Brighton Street

Lily Donnelly, 571 Donegall Road

Mary Donnelly, 26 Unity Street

Owen Donnelly, 702 Shore Road

Patrick Donnelly, 702 Shore Road

Robert Downey, 17 Clonard Gardens

Sarah Doyle, 10 Brittons Drive

Joseph Drummond, 36 Kent Street

E Duffy, 1 Milton Street

Francis Duffy, 127 Jamaica Street

John Duffy, 248 Grosvenor Road

M Duffy, 1 Pinkerton Street

Stephen Duffy, 10 Thompson Street

Dickie Dunne, 26 Valentine Street

Robert Dunne, 15 Whiterock Crescent

Hugh Edmond, 24 Rockville street

Peter Fanning, 41 Fallswater Street

James Farrell, 99 McDonnell Street

James Farrelly, 31 Vulcan Street

John Farrelly, 55 Vulcan Street

Bernard Fee, 65 Sheriff Street

John Fegan, 16 Panton Street

James Ferran, 19 Beechmount Street

John Ferran, 19 Locan Street

Thomas Ferran, 82 Beechmount Street

Robert Finnegan, Englishtown Hannahstown

Daniel Fitzpatrick O’Reilly, 13 Ardmore Avenue

J. Fitzsimons, 122 Divis Street

Desmond Flanagan, 496 Doengall Road

Thomas Flanagan, 14 McQuillan Street

Hugh Flavell, 32 Alexander Street West

Angelo Forte, 176 Tates Avenue

Jack Gaffney, 9 St James Place

James Gallery, 13 Herbert Street

John Gettings, 70 Beechfield Street

Joe Gilhooley, 10 Cyprus Street

Arthur Gillen, 10 College Court

J. Gillen, 27 Andersonstown Road

Patrick Gillen, 10 College Court

William Gillen, 10 College Court

Desmond Gillespie, 17 Wandsworth Road

Alexander Gilmore, 5 Teresa Street

John Girvan, 7 McMullan’s Place

Jean Goodfellow, 45 Crumlin Street

George Goodman, 75 Stanfield Street

Joseph Gorman, 20 Balaclava Street

Margaret Gough, 58 Clowney Street

Kathleen Graham, 71 Upton Street

Liam Graham, 62 Beechmount Avenue

Charles Gray, 33 Rockmore Street

Gerard Greenan, 18 Saul Street

Patrick Grimley, 75 Ardilea Street

John Hall, 5 College Place North

J.M. Halligan, 24 Plevna Street

Annie Hamill, 12 Shiels Street

James Hamill, 12 Shiels Street

Sean Hamill, 12 Shiels Street

Jim Hamilton, 5 Dimsdale Street

Jim Harvey, 34 Kilmood Street

Jimmy Hasty, 63 Stanfield Street

Patrick Hayes, 22 McQuillan Street

William Headley, 25 Leoville Street

Jim Heaney, 2 Edward Street

Richard Heaney, 23 Havana Street

Nora Hegarty, 32 Clowney Street

Joe Henderson, 109 Balkan Street

Catherine Hendron, 18 Altcar Street

William Henry, 33 Columbus Street

Joseph Hewitt, 18 Boomer Street

Patrick Hickey, 5 Upton Street

Bob Hicks, 132 Glenard Gardens

Patsy Hicks, 5 Alma Street

Sean Hicks, 5 Alma Street

Doris Hill, 8 Beechmount Avenue

? Hillen, 10 Garnet Street

Thomas Hodgkinson, 9 Brighton Street

Mrs R Hope, 59 Andersonstown Park

James Hughes, 81 Hawthorne Street

John Hughes, 4 Masseren e Street

Joseph Hughes, 48 Butler Street

Joseph Hughes, 23 Plevna Street

Patrick Hughes, 8 Gortfin Street

Mollie Hurson, 2 St Paul’s Terrace

Anthony Irvine, 42 Alton Street

George Irvine, 4 Gracehill Street

Samuel Irvine, 23 Majorca Street

John Jackson, 32 Rockmore Street

Mary Jordan, 89 Albert Street

Jim Kane, 28 Milan Street

Robert Kavanagh, 100 Divis Street

Frank Kearney, 14 Odessa Street

James Kearney, 14 Odessa Street

Hugh Keenan, 32 Short Strand

Joe Keenan, 33 Falls Road

John Keenan, 43 Short Strand

Malachy Keenan, 33 Falls Road

Michael Keenan, 43 Short Strand

Sean Keenan, 28 California Street

Agustine Kelly, 168 Oldpark Road

Billy Kelly, 18 Frere Street

Dominic Kelly, 39 Upton Street

Frank Kelly, 11 Little Patrick Street

James Kelly, 18 Campbell’s Row

John Kelly, 10 Iris Drive

Kathleen Kelly, 57 Brookfield Street

Rose Kelly, 57 Brookfield Street

Susan Kelly, 18 Beechmount Parade

Francis Kennedy, 18 Jude Street

Gerry Kerr, 67 Vere Street

James Kerr, 58 Ardilea Street

James Kerr, 17 Oakfield Street

John Kerr, 27 Whiterock Drive

Patrick Kerr, 54 Durham Street

William Killen, 11 Brook Street

James Kinnaird, 12 Lemon Street

James Kinney, 11 Colinpark Street

Willie Largey, 36 California Street

Hannah Lavery, 5 Whiterock Drive

Paddy Lavery, 22 Lincoln Street

Tony Lavery, 39 Balkan Street

James Lecky, 45 Mary Street

Charles Leddy, Mooreland Park

Christopher Lee, no address

Thomas Locke, 10 Elizabeth Street

J. Logan, 34 Steam Mill Lane

Terence Loughlin, 53 Mary Street

Dan Loughran, 42 Garmoyle Street

Thomas Loughrey, 19 Sidney Street

Patrick Lowe, 10 Ward Street

Matthew Lundy, 35 Forfar Street

Marcus Lynn, 10 Milan Street

Jackie Mackin, 36 Ton Street

James Magee, 48 Leeson Street

Patrick Magee, 52 Dunmore Street

Rosaleen Magee, 52 Dunmore Street

Hannah Magennis, The Cottages Glen Road

Joe Maguiness, 24 Milner Street

Thomas Maguinness, 137 New Lodge Road

Annie Maguire, 33 Abercorn Street North

J. Maguire, 55 Theodore Street

Lily Maguire, 25 Crocus Street

Charles Mahony, 52 Glenview Street

John Mallon, 9 Garnet Street

Michael Malone, 10 Thomas Street

Mrs Manning, 4 Forfar Street

John Markey, 24 Steam Mill Lane

Thomas Marley, 63 Bombay Street

Hugh Martin, 20 Glenpark Street

Leo Martin, 27 Rockville Street

Hugh Matthews, 11 Albert Street

James Matthews, 53 Masserene Street

Joe Matthews, 32 Regent Street

James McAleese, 16 Milan Street

Dan McAllister, 81 Lincoln Street

Joe McAllister, 10 Islandbawn Street

Patrick McArdle, 44 Bow Street

Sean McArdle, 39 Beechmount Street

Hugh McAreavey, 74 Raglan Street

Hugh McAreavey, 74 Raglan Street

Alex McAtamney, 56 Fleet Street

John McAvoy, 25 Sheriff Street

Joe McBrine, 13 Colin Street

Patrick McBrine, 13 Colin Street

John McCabe, 55 Springview Street

Chris McCann, 24 Garnet Street

Dan McCann, 71 Albert Street

Ed McCann, 8 Jude Street

Edward McCann, 24 Garnet Street

Kathleen McCann, 10 Norfolk Street

Patrick McCann, 57 Locan Street

? McCartney, 2 Oranmore Street

Sean McCaughey, 15 Heathfield Road

Thomas McClarnon, 128 Cavendish Street

Gerry McClinton, 41 Madrid Street

Hugh McCloskey, 8 Islandbawn Street

Hugh McCloskey, 8 Islandbawn Street

Jack McCloskey, 47 Beechmount Crescent

John McCloskey, 50 Elizabeth Street

Edward McCluskey, 90 Raglan Street

Hugh McConnell, 20 Pound Street

W.J. McCorry, 81 Sultan Street

Pat McCotter, 6 Sevastopol Street

Matthew McCrory, 44 Balkan Street

Charles McCrystal, 28 Willowfield Gardens

J McCullough, 48 Amcomri Street

J. McCullough, 12 Frere Street

Lily McCullough, 43 Brookfield Street

Norah McCullough, 26 Iveagh Parade

Patrick McCullough, 131 North Queen Street

Ellen McCurry, 81 Sultan Street

John McCurry, 81 Sultan Street

Willie McCurry, 53 St James Road

Frank McCusker, 40 Servia Street

Jim McDermot, 49 Lady Street

Richard McDermott, 49 Kilmood Street

James McDonnell, 81 Locan Street

Jim McDonnell, 61 Vere Street

Peter McDonnell, 28 Parkview Street

William McDonnell, 80 Sultan Street

Margaret McFadden, 21 Waterville Street

Charles McGahey, 1a Herbert Street

Vincent McGarhavan, 53 Rockville Street

Liam McGarrity, 14 Artillery Street

Thomas McGarrity, 13 Fallswater Street

Thomas McGeown, 4 Inkerman Street

Francis McGibbon, Beech Cottage

James McGinley, 28 Rodney Parade

Bridget McGinn, 10 Parkview Street

John McGinty, 32 North Queen Street

Charles McGlade, 126 Ardilea Street

Frank McGlade, 126 Ardilea Street

John McGoldrick, 51 Cawnpore Street

Sam McGoldrick, 51 Cawnpore Street

James McGovern, 35 Winetavern Street

James McGowan, 24 Parkview Street

Peter McGowan, 38 Dunmore Street

Violet McGowan, 25 Parkview Street

Charles McGrath, 33 Rodney Drive

Hugh McGrath, 27 Dunmore Street

Lucy McGrath, 20 College Square North

Norah McGrath, 20 College Square North

John McGrillen, 34 McAuley Street

Frank McGrogan, 72 North Queen Street

Thomas McGrogan, 36 Rockdale Street

R McGuckian, 13 St James Drive

Mary McGuigan, 86 Clowney Street

John McGuinness, 31 Hamill Street

Joe McGurk, 115 Durham Street

Sarah McGurk, 115 Durham Street

Charles McHugh, 15 Garnet Street

Murty McIlduff, 17 Gamble Street

Chris McKay, 34 Milan Street

Frank McKearney, 14 Odessa Street

James McKearney, 14 Odessa Street

Bernadette McKee, 40 Sevastopol Street

Teresa McKee, 9 Springview Street

John McKeever, 6 Beechmount Parade

Ambrose McKenna, 11 Beechmount Drive

Elizabeth McKenna, 10 Iris Drive

Francis McKenna, 240 Falls Road

Jean McKenna, 50 Forest Street

John McKenna, 10 Iris Drive

Mary McKenna, 37 Fort Street

Patrick McKenna, 10 Foundry Street

Patrick McKenna, 10 Iris Drive

Rose McKenna, 10 Iris Drive

William McKenna, 10 Foundry Street

P McKeown, 17 Beechfield Street

Robert McKnight, 32 McAuley Street

Brian McLaughlin, Longwood Terrace Whitehouse

Patrick McLaughlin, 36 Library Street

Mary McLaughln, 10 Galway Street

Alex McLoughlin, 15 McQuillan Street

Chris McLoughlin, 54 Vere Street

Mary McLoughlin, 4 McCleery Street

Frank McMahon, 12 Dimsdale Street

Peggy McMahon, 46 Lincoln Street

Jock McManus, 458 Donegall Road

Matilda McMillen, 13 Cavendish Street

Richard McMillen, 20 Moira Street

John McMullan, 5 Abercorn Street North

J. McMurray, 35 Balkan Street

Sandy McNabb, Elmwood Avenue

Jack McNally, 21 Ardliea Street

Denis McNamee, 23 John Street

Henry McNamee, 23 John Street

Hubert McNearney, 77 Herbert Street

Billy McNeill, 34 Bond Street

Henry McNeilly, 65 Thompson Street

Francis McNellis, 10 Scotland Street South

Thomas McNulty, 7 Dunsdale Street

Martin McParland, 57 Lincoln Street

James McPartland, 2 Frere Street

Patrick McPhillips, 45 Ross Street

John McQuillan, 46 Lepper Street

Andrew McRoberts, 6 Conway Street

? McShane, 60 Balkan Street

Liam McStravick, 16 Little Donegall Street

Eileen McTaggart, 86 Eskdale Gardens

Phil McTaggart, 134 Ardilea Street

Joe McVarnock, 40 Stanhope Street

Mary Meleady, 203 Falls Road

Nellie Meleady, 203 Falls Road

Richard Menagh, 23 Springfield Road

James Mennan, 16 Crumlin Street

Frank Milne, 58 Chatham Street

Henry Mohan, 67 New Lodge Road

James Monaghan, 26 Colligan Street

Marie Moone, 8 McQuillan Street

William Mooney, 4 O’Neill Street

James Morgan, 22 Lancaster Street

Murtagh Morgan, 27 Quadrant Street

Thomas Morris, 184 Ardglen Park

Patrick Morrison, 25 Violet Street

Annie Morrissey, 9 Tyrone Street

Joe Morrow, 7 Woodstock Road

Francis Moyna, 31 Bombay Street

Josephine Moyna, 41 Bombay Street

James Mulholland, 50 Chemical Street

Liam Mulholland, 83 Gracehill Street

Joe Mullen, 12 Upton Street

James Mulligan, 81 Forfar Street

John Mulligan, 5 Madrid Street

John Mulligan, 219 Mountpottinger Road

Patrick Mulligan, 58 Madrid Street

Thomas Murphy, 27 Sydney Street

Gerry Murray, 101 Joy Street

Gerry Murray, 67 Mountpottinger Road

Joe Murray, 67 Mountpottinger Road

Thomas Murray, 5 Sorella Street

William Murray, 66 Chemical Street

George Nash, 52 Gibson Street

Mary Nash, 4 Abercorn Street

Gerry Neeson, Hannahstown

John Noad, 56 Clyde Street

Kevin Nolan, 1 Ton Street

Margaret Nolan, 93 McDonnell Street

Seamus Nolan, 17 McCleery Street

Gerry Nugent, 84 Balkan Street

Bridget O’Boyle, 18 Colinpark Street

Bridie O’Boyle, 129 Brompton Park

Dan O’Boyle, 13 Regent Street

Thomas O’Boyle, 76 Ardilea Street

John O’Brien, 26 Eliza Street

Sarah O’Brien, 9 Kildare Street

Frank O’Connor, 19 Jamaica Street

Gerry O’Connor, 182 Nelson Street

John O’Connor, 182 Nelson Street

Mary O’Donnell, 29 Whiterock Crescent

Mary O’Farrell, 10 Albert Street

Hugh O’Hagan, 18 Rockville Street

James O’Hanlon, 43 New Dock Street

William O’Hanlon, 13 Woodstock Street

Cassie O’Hara, 135 Castle Street

Charles O’Hara, 15 Thomas Street

Con O’Hara, 15 Thomas Street

Mary O’Hara, 40 Amcomri Street

John O’Hare, 1 Jamaica Street

Hugh O’Kane, 27 Rosevale Street

Michael O’Kane, 40 Abercorn Street North

Thomas O’Malley, 14 Norfolk Street

Charles O’Neill, 6 Parkview Street

Chris O’Neill, 17 Milan Street

Dominic O’Neill, 16 Norfolk Parade

Frank O’Neill, 6 Parkview Street

Joe O’Neill, 52 Marine Street

Patrick O’Neill, 30 Kilmood Street

Patrick O’Neill, 37 Lincoln Street

John O’Rawe, 35 Oakman Street

Richard O’Rawe, 51 Oakman Street

Ambrose O’Reilly, 2 Oranmore Street

John O’Reilly, 38 Beechmount Street

Albert Owens, 8 Brighton Street

Frank Pimley, 10 Divis Drive

Isaac Pimley, 10 Divis Drive

James Pimley, 14 College Street West

Joe Pimley, 10 Divis Drive

Albert Price, 122 Percy Street

? Privilege, Garden Square Greencastle

Edward Quinn, 12 Arnon Street

James Quinn, 57 Grove Street

Kathleen Quinn, 57 Grove Street

Matthew Quinn, 21 Rodney Drive

Patrick Quinn, 118 Glenard Drive

Thomas Quinn, 19 Upton Street

John Quinnn, 57 Grove Street

Bernard Rafferty, 93 Butler Street

Peggy Rafferty, 2 Rockville Street

Sean Rafferty, 2 Rockville Street

John Rainey, 33 Cape Street

Thomas Ratican, 17 North Queen Street

Joe Reid, 19 Milan Street

Patrick Reid, 19 Milan Street

Thomas Reid, 61 Fredrick Street

? Reilly, 31 New Dock Street

Ed Reilly, 51 Clonard Gardens

Gerry Rice, 11 Balkan Street

Joe Rice, 5 Herbert Street

Liam Rice, 36 Merrion Street

J. Roberts, 49 New Lodge Road

Bernard Rooney, 71 Thompson Street

D Rooney, 101 Cyprus Street

Patrick Rooney, 45 Thompson Street

William Rooney, 23 Leoville Street

? Russell, 39 Raglan Street

Hugh Russell, 32 Plevna Street

James Ryder, 31 Rodney Drive

Mary Sands, 25 Servia Street

Michael Sands, 25 Servia Street

James Savage, 2 Burke Street

John Scullion, 76 Harcourt Drive

Susan Shannon, 25 Falls Road

James Sharpe, 9 Alton Street

John Sherry, 30 Servia Street

Joe Sloan, 41 Grosvenor Place

William Sloan, 28 Rodney Parade

J. Smith, 67 Forfar Street

Mules Smith, 29 Sheriff Street

William Smith, 8 Malcolmson Street

Jimmy Steele, 70 North Queen Street

James Stewart, 12 Rockdale Street

Jim Straney, 57 Thompson Street

Jim Sullivan, 89 Sussex Street

Henry Taylor, 46 Chatham Street

Peggy Taylor, 22 Servia Street

John Teague, 45 Springview Street

Mary Teague, 57 Mary Street

James Thompson, 13 Andersonstown Park

Patrick Thompson, 8 Arran Street

Margaret Thornbury, 22 Clondara Street

Michael Tohill, 19 Hardinge Street

Denis Toner,  14 Malcolmson Street

Joe Toner, 89 Ardliea Street

Dan Trainor, 32 Nelson Street

James Trainor, 66 Rockmore Road

John Trainor, 66 Rockmore Road

Michael Trainor, 66 Rockmore Road

William Tully, 4 Quadrant Street

Liam Tumelty, 11 Little York Street

Ellen Tumulty, 11 Little York Street

Eileen Walker, 42 Bombay Street

Joe Walker, 42 Bombay Street

John Walsh, 38 Glenpark Street

Michael Walsh, 30 Chemical Street

Liam Watson, 8 Malcolmson Street

Denis Whelan, 97 Bridge End

Thomas Whinery, 24 Chemical Street

Harry White, 72 Andersonstown Park

Liam Wiggins, 22 Torrens Road

Isabella Wilkens, 1 Strathroy Park

John Wilson, 57 Norfolk Street

Eugene Wright, 28 Hasting Street

Malachy Wylie, Graham’s Cottage Ligoniel

RUC list of IRA suspects

The following is the RUC’s ‘A’ list of Irish Republican Army suspects in Belfast in January 1938. The list below is organised by RUC district and is an extract from a 1930s RUC Diary that is in private hands. Names and addresses are recorded (more or less) as they are listed by the RUC, although I have included the familiar version of names where the individual is well known (eg Sean McCaughey instead of John McCaughey). This is the RUC’s ‘A’ list as further lists were maintained (a ‘B’ list, other republican groups like Cumann na mBan and the Pre-Truce IRA Association).

The ‘A’ list was used to target individuals for internment later that year. It includes many individuals who had been imprisoned by the northern government (some of whom were in prison in January 1938). It also shows up some issues for the RUC as the likes of an IRA unit like the one covering the North Queen Street, Half Bap and Docks area spread into two separate RUC districts (D and G below).

A District

Gerry Murray, 101 Joy Street

Joe Keenan, 33 Falls Road

B District

James Monaghan, 26 Colligan Street

Liam McAllister, 81 Lincoln Street

Jock McManus, 458 Donegall Road

Sean McArdle, 39 Beechmount Street

Hughie Matthews, 11 Albert Street

James Ryder, 31 Rodney Drive

Henry McNamee, 23 John Street

Pat McCotter, 6 Sevastopol Street

Albert Owens, 8 Brighton Street

Harry White, 78 Anderstown Park

Dan McCann, 71 Albert Street

Pat McKenna, 10 Irish Drive

John J. Teague, 45 Springview Street

John McKenna, 10 Iris Drive

Michael Doherty, 67 Theodore road

Peter Fanning, 41 Fallswater Street

John Rainey, 33 Cape Street

Liam Watson, 8 Malcolmson Street

John McCurry, 81 Sultan Street

John McGoldrick, 51 Cawnpore Street

Hugh Flavelle, 5 Amcomri Street

Sean Hamill, 12 Shiels Street

C District

Charles Mahoney, 52 Glenview Street

Richard Heaney, 23 Havana Street

Hubert McNearney, 77 Herbert Street

Patrick McAleer, 45 Glenard Park

Gerry Cullen, 26 Chief Street

Sean McCaughey, 18 Heathfield Road

Frank O’Neill, 6 Parkview Street

Phil McTaggart, 132 Ardliea Street

Patsy Quinn, 110 Ardildea Street

Jack McNally, 21 Ardilea Street

Charlie McGlade, 126 Ardilea Street

Liam Mulholland, 83 Gracehill Street

Frank McGlade, 126 Ardilea Street

D District

Joe McGurk, 115 Durham Street

Joe Davey, 31 Alton Street

Frank McGrogan, 72 North Queen Street

Joe Brown, 40 Upton Street

Jimmy Steele, 70 North Queen Street

Sean Keenan, 28 California Street

E District

William Murray, 66 Chemical Street

Joe Bole, 80 Seaforde Street

Dan Doherty, 47 Sheriff Street

Liam McKenna, 49 Seaforde Street

Denis Whelan, 97 Bridge End

F District

Samuel Irvine, 23 Majorca Street

Dan O’Reilly Fitzgerald, 13 Ardmore Avenue

G District

Seamus Nolan, 17 McCleery Street

James Trainor, 32 Nelson Street

Chris McLaughlin, 54 Vere Street

Gerry O’Connor, 182 Nelson Street

Dickie Dunne, 26 Valentine Street

IRA appeal to the Orange Order

OO AC

An Address from the Army Council of the Irish Republican Army to the Men and Women of the Orange Order

[This is the text as quoted by The Kerryman on 16th July 1932. It was published in An Phoblacht the same day and had been largely written by Peader O’Donnell. Prior to publication, it had been circulated with a covering letter from the IRA’s Adjutant General, Donal O’Donoghue, on 8th July to newspaper editors. Most, even including the Belfast Newsletter, published abridged versions as early as 11th July 1932. I have kept the formatting here from The Kerryman version. The address was distributed as leaflets in unionist districts of Belfast by IRA volunteers.]

Fellow Countrymen and Women,

It is a long call from the ranks of the Irish Republican Army to the marching throngs that hold the 12th July Celebrations in North East Ulster. Across the space we have sometimes exchanged shots, or missiles or hard words, but never forgetting that on occasions our ancestors have stood shoulder to shoulder. Some day we will again exchange ideas and then the distance which now separates us will shorten. For we of the Irish Republican Army believe that inevitably the small farmers and wage-earners in the Six County area will make common cause with those of the rest of Ireland, for the common good of the mass of the people in a Free United Irish Republic. Such a conviction is forming itself in an ever increasing number of minds in North East Ulster.

The Irish Republican Army – within North East Ulster as well as in the rest of Ireland – believe that the mass of the Working-Farmers and Wage-earners must organise behind revolutionary leadership if they are to rescue themselves from a system within they the few prosper and the many are impoverished.

It is our opinion, a conviction driven in on our mind by the facts of life around us, that capitalism and imperialism constitute a system of exploitation and injustice within which the mass of the people can know no freedom.

The burdens of to-day’s bad times are falling with increasing weight on Working Farmers, who must surrender an increasing part of their produce to meet rents, taxes, bank interest, etc, while their incomes diminish The unemployed workers are being torn at with economies in social services – adding daily to the destitute. The wage earners are finding their conditions _s of employment and standard of living steadily worsening.

We can see no permanent solution of these evils except by the transfer of power over production, distribution and exchange to the mass of the people.

The power to produce what the many require exists; the Organisation and its distribution presents no insoluble difficulty. But the vested interests of a privileged minority are across the road and progress is impossible, unless we are prepared to clear away these obstacles.

These interests that deny their rights to the many are those on which the Empire rests. Touch or threaten these privileged interests and the whole force of the Empire is invoked for their protection. Thus it is that we see and say that the freedom of the mass – of the Irish People is impossible without breaking the connection with Imperial Britain and with all the Imperial system connotes.

Do you see any other road to freedom for yourselves and your families?

You must realise that the chief industries on which the former alleged prosperity of North East Ulster rested are gone beyond hope of being revived; that the same thing has occurred in Great Britain; that everywhere the pinch grows tighter on those who are unemployed as a result of this breakdown in the whole structure of capitalism. Can the British people help you while their own workers and industries are struggling desperately to exist and are not succeeding in these days? Where do you see any hope?

Working-farmers and Wage-earners of North East Ulster. You surely must see that your future is bound up with the mass of the people in the remainder of Ireland. To preserve yourselves from extinction, you and they must combine and go forward to the attainment of A Free Irish Nation within which life and living will be organised and controlled by you to serve your needs and thus end the present economic and social injustices for ever.

The industrial capacity, and training of you industrial workers, of North East Ulster ensure you a leading influence and place in the economy and life of a Free Irish Nation.

EXPLOITATION OF RELIGIOUS PREJUDICES

To prejudice you it is emphasized that we of the Irish republican Army and the mass of Republicans are mainly Catholic, and that your religious beliefs would not be respected in a free Ireland! It is quite true we are mianly Catholics, but in Southern Ireland the same political and economical interests and voices that tell you we are Catholics, tell the Catholic population of the South that we are Anti-God fanatics, and yearning for an opportunity to make war on the religion to which the majority of us belong!

The fact is we are quite unaware of religious distinctions within our Movement.

We guarantee you, you will guarantee us, and we will both guarantee all full freedom of conscience and religious worship in the Ireland we are to set free.

This is the simple truth, and just now when Imperial interests are attempting to conceal themselves behind the mad fury of religious strife you and we should combine to make certain that no such escape should be provided them.

In the process of exploitation of the wage-earners and small producers, do you not realise how little religion matters to the exploiters? Orangemen and Catholic, Catholic women and yours toil side by side in the factory and mill, all equally victims Those who thus exploit mercilessly your labour and energies, would outside set you at one anothers throats, because it is to their advantage to divide you and lead you into conflict by arousing religious issues and inflaming passions.

Do yon not find yourselves queued shoulder to shoulder outside the Unemployed Exchanges waiting for the ‘Dole’, that crumb which the exploiters throw to the exploited of different religions? In these vital matters jour religion or your membership of the Orange Older counts for little, nor does Catholicism to the unemployed and starving Catholics in Southern Ireland.

The fact is that the religious feelings of the masses of both Orangemen and Catholics are played on and exploited by the Imperialists and Capitalists the more surely to enslave them.

THE VICTORY OF THE BOYNE!

You celebrate the victory of the Boyne. This battle was a victory for the alliance of the then Pope; and William of Orange; strange alliance for you to celebrate; strange victory for Catholics to resist! History has been muddled to hide the occasions when your forefathers and ours made common cause, and passions are stirred to manufacture antagonisms. If William of Orange and His Holiness could achieve an alliance, there is hope that “NO SURRENDER” may come up from a throng which also roars “UP THE REPUBLIC”.

Your stock were the founders and inspiration, the North East Ulster the cradle, of the modern Revolutionary Movement for National Independence and Economic Freedom. Your illustrious ancestors and co-religionists, the United Irishmen, by their gallant struggle in 1798 set aflame the ideals of Republicanism which never since have been extinguished. We ask that you should join us to achieve their ideals — National Freedom and religious toleration.

It was John Mitchel, a Newry man of your stock, who addressed these words to your forefathers: “In fact religious hatred has been kept alive in Ireland longer than anywhere else in Christendom. Just for the simple reason that Irish landlords and British statesmen found their own account in it, and so soon as Irish landlordism and British domination are finally rooted out of the country it will be heard of no longer in Ireland any more than it is in France or Belgium, now.”

Fraternally, Your Fellowcountrymen,

The Army Council,

On Behalf of the Irish Republican Army